Offshore oil rigs serve as a breeding refuge for Norwegian Black-legged Kittiwakes. Although they are few in number, these birds produce more chicks than kittiwakes in natural colonies along the coast, to the benefit of the impoverished
The Circumpolar Seabird Group under CAFF and the Arctic Council has proposed a conservation plan for the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, a species which has been declining severely
Sustainable certification of oil palm plantations can reduce poverty, but the timing of certification is among the factors that influence the effect.
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